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Taking control: Chang (left) and Eng Bunker become slave-owning Southern gentlemen

The walls in Chang and Eng Bunker’s bedroom would have had some tales to tell, if walls could talk. Their marital bed was built for four — brothers Chang and Eng in the middle and their wives on either side. Between them, they conceived some 21 children in that bed.

For Chang and Eng were the original Siamese Twins, conjoined siblings who provided the name for all who suffer this accident of birth.

As a new biography reveals, the pair triumphed over extraordinary odds and appalling prejudice in 19th-century America and Britain. Brought to the West to be exhibited as freaks and probed by doctors, the enterprising Bunkers eventually became rich Southern gentlemen and plantation owners.

But, says U.S. academic Joseph Orser in The Lives of Chang and Eng, the pair were never allowed to forget that many considered them ‘monsters’ whose sexual urges and desire to pursue a normal family life were unnatural, even devilish, abominations.

Born in 1811 in a fishing village 60 miles from Bangkok, the twins really had their roots more in China than in Siam, later renamed Thailand. Their father was a Chinese fisherman and their 35-year-old mother was half-Chinese, half-Malay.

The two midwives who helped at the birth recoiled in superstitious horror at the thick ligament connecting the babies just above their waists. The twins’ mother probably saved their lives by untwisting the ligament — which had been connected to a single umbilical cord — and moving the babies so they lay staring into each other’s eyes. She named them In and Jun (anglicised to Eng and Chang). Chang — on the left — was always slightly shorter and the upper half of his body arched away from his brother.

Their mother encouraged the boys to exercise, stretching their connecting ligament so that it gradually grew to more than five inches — enough for them to run, swim and handle a boat. Crucially, they were able to bow 18 times, as custom dictated, when they were presented to the king of Siam, Rama III.

Their life, helping their family to sell preserved ducks’ eggs, might have passed in obscurity had they not been spotted by a British merchant when they were adolescents.

Robert Hunter at first thought the twins were ‘some strange animal’ when he saw them swimming in a river. But he recognised their commercial potential and easily persuaded their impoverished family that the twins should accompany him back to the West and be exhibited as a public curiosity. They agreed but the king, who wanted to show them off at court, was reluctant.

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It took five years and the help of an American sea captain, Abel Coffin, to win over the king, who was bribed with a telescope and a troupe of temple dancers. The twins’ mother — whose husband had died when the boys were young — received $500 (£300) for contracting her sons to Hunter and Coffin for 30 months.

On board Captain Coffin’s ship as they sailed for Massachusetts with a translator in 1829, the 17-year-old twins showed that they were bright and extremely co-ordinated. They quickly picked up the rudiments of English and could scurry up the mast as fast as any sailor aboard.

In Boston they were exhibited as The Siamese Double Boys and were an immediate sensation.

In theatres and halls across the U.S. they performed for four hours a day, six days a week, entertaining thousands with somersaults, backflips, an uncanny ability at draughts and chess, and their prodigious strength — they could carry a 20-stone man.

Although Captain Coffin told some people that he and Hunter ‘owned’ the boys, the twins were actually paid well for their hard work.

Defying the gossips: The Bunker twins (pictured back centre) with their wives and two of their sons 

Not many conjoined twins had survived for more than a few days, so doctors and scientists clamoured to see them too.

It suited their promoters that they were examined, albeit often invasively, by some of America’s finest doctors. Those doctors’ conclusion — that women and children could view them safely ‘without harm or offence’ — was perfect titillation to include on the show’s advertising posters.

Britain hankered to see them too, and the twins sailed there in 1830. In London, some of the world’s leading physicians were waiting to examine them. At 5ft 2in tall, the twins were now fully grown and their connecting ligament was about the size and roundness of a child’s arm.

Each one appeared to sense when the other was tickled or ate an unpleasant-tasting food, but he couldn’t hear a whisper in the other’s ear or feel a pinch on his arm. Although both were clearly intelligent, the hardier Chang was dominant and Eng would rarely speak out of turn.

The big question nagging the doctors — could the twins be separated and survive? — was something on which they couldn’t agree.

Of one thing Sir Astley Cooper, the ‘Great Lion of British Surgery’, was sure. ‘Depend on it, those boys will fetch a vast deal more money while they are together than when they are separate,’ he said. ‘Why separate them? The boys seem perfectly happy as they are.’ But that was not always to be.

The pair went on to tour the Continent and returned to the U.S. in 1831, aged 20 years old, healthier, more educated and richer.

 We are making love pretty fast

The twins, aged 31 

Dispensing with Coffin and Hunter and hiring their own manager, they now insisted on being treated with respect. They were not above getting into fights with those who slighted them, especially anyone who suggested that their mother had sold them into slavery.

They might sound like the cruelly mistreated ‘Elephant Man’, but the pair were natural showmen who realised that their deformity was a path to a fortune. They spent the next seven years on the road, including three-month stints at the Museum of Curiosities in New York.

There they met and befriended James Calloway, a young doctor from Wilkesboro, a remote township in North Carolina. By this time the twins were tired of being continually stared at, even for money, and hankered for a quiet life. They accepted Calloway’s invitation to return home with him.

North Carolina was a slave state but under U.S. law, the twins counted as white. They became U.S. citizens, realising only when they got to the naturalisation office that they had no surname. They borrowed ‘Bunker’ from the man standing behind them in the queue.

Canny and industrious businessmen, they opened a store and, buying 200 acres, branched into farming and built a spacious home for themselves. The twins who had been leased out as teenagers themselves became slave-owners, buying dozens to work their new plantation.

But their thoughts turned increasingly to fulfilling more physical needs. Observers had long noticed that the pair loved discussing attractive women together, yet the outside world dismissed the idea that they could have a sex life as a joke.

Newspapers for years ran speculative stories about them and various women. A London woman claimed she had fallen madly in love with them but could not offer herself in marriage for fear of committing bigamy. There was similar sniggering over an American admirer who fell in love with Chang but realised a ‘divorce’ from Eng was out of the question.

When they were born in 1811 in a fishing village 60 miles from Bangkok, the two midwives recoiled in superstitious horror at the thick ligament connecting the babies just above their waists

There was even a joke that Chang had interfered in a ‘love intrigue’ of Eng’s: the brothers wanted to fight a duel over it but couldn’t agree on a distance from which to shoot at each other.

The twins were undeterred by the mockery. ‘We enjoy ourselves pretty well but have not as yet married,’ they wrote, aged 31, to Robert Hunter, the man who had ‘discovered’ them. ‘But we are making love pretty fast and if we get a couple of nice wives we will be sure to let you know about it.’

In fact they were pursuing the daughters of a neighbouring farmer, David Yates. An unusual romantic conundrum had arisen.

Over several years, Chang and the slimmer, more attractive sister, Adelaide, had fallen in love. Eng and her sister, Sarah, had not.

Marrying two sisters made sense, however, as Victorian propriety would not have tolerated a woman sharing such intimacy with any other female.

It took the somewhat portly Sarah five years to agree to Eng’s entreaties, but both couples were married by a Baptist preacher in Yates’s living room in 1843. The foursome then returned chez Bunker, where the marital bed had been enlarged and strengthened.

The twins advertised their last appearance 

Quite how they all envisaged their marriage working is not clear but, according to some reports, the twins had considered drastic measures.

Despite being warned by various doctors over the years that an operation to separate them could prove fatal, they had travelled to Philadelphia a few months before their wedding for just that purpose. They were waiting to go into surgery when the sisters, who had learnt of their quest, burst in and persuaded them not to go through with such a risky procedure.

Nonetheless, the wedding provoked a national scandal, with accusations that the marriage was ‘bestial’.

When both wives rapidly produced daughters — proving that these were not platonic relationships — the outrage reached fever pitch. Abolitionists in the North blamed the ‘depravity’ on a Southern culture perverted by the ‘sin of slavery’.

‘The prospect of the twins engaging in sexual relations with women disturbed sensibilities,’ says Oser, their biographer. When a Kentucky woman gave birth to stillborn conjoined twins, she blamed seeing pictures of the Bunkers at around the time she conceived.

Still, the brothers went on to father 21 children — 11 by Eng and ten by Chang.

The couples’ bedroom etiquette remains unclear. It was certainly not considered a polite topic at the time, although a local newspaper noted that their wives’ first children were born just six days apart in 1844. A later pair were separated by eight days.

Amid reports that the wives — who must have shown amazing forbearance over the years — finally began to argue, the twins set up separate homes and installed a wife and children in each. They agreed to split each week between the two.

But while the families might seem to have had all the trappings of gentry, with their estates, slaves and silverware, money was sometimes tight — especially after the South was ruined in the American Civil War.

So the brothers had to go back ‘on tour’ six times in later life, sometimes taking their children (none of whom was physically deformed, though two were deaf). It must have been humiliating, especially when — in their 50s — they signed up in New York with the infamous freak show proprietor P.T. Barnum.

The Prince of Wales was among guests who watched them perform alongside the midget General Tom Thumb, the Bearded Lady and the tiny-headed Zip the Man Monkey.

In 1868 they returned to Britain. The twins had fond memories of the country, but the public mood had turned against freak shows. Reporters doubted that their children could actually be theirs. ‘For some, it was too “disgusting” to imagine these “human monsters” as husbands or fathers,’ says Orser.

Meanwhile, the twins found they were cramping each other’s style: Eng loved all-night poker, Chang’s weakness was boozing.

In 1870, as they were returning from a tour of Europe and Russia, Chang suffered a stroke down the side closest to his brother. Eng nursed him as best he could, carrying around Chang’s now useless leg in a sling as his ailing brother leant on a crutch.

In January 1874, when the twins were 62, Chang caught bronchitis but still insisted that they venture out in the cold to honour their twice-weekly house-moving ritual. Two days later, Eng awoke early and called for help. His brother had died.

‘Then I am going!’ cried Eng, and began twisting in panic in bed. Sweating profusely and saying that he was in great pain, he told his wife: ‘I am dying.’ Drawing his brother to him, he uttered his final words: ‘May the Lord have mercy on my soul!’

By the time the doctor arrived, ready to cut the twins apart, Eng was dead, just two-and-a-half hours after his brother passed away.

A post-mortem examination, conducted by doctors who described the twins as ‘the monster now before us’, showed that Chang may have had a cerebral clot but Eng appeared literally to have died of fright, overcome by the realisation that he was attached to a dead man.

Even in death, the twins provided a spectacle when the post-mortem results were made public. Finally, doctors were able to discover just how connected the twins were.

Not only did they share a liver, it transpired, but the make-up of their connecting ligament was so complex that they would never have survived being parted.

  • The Lives of Chang and Eng: Siam’s Twins in Nineteenth Century America, by Joseph Orser. Published by the University of North Carolina Press, price £17.50.

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Darrell Issa
Chairman of the House Oversight Committee
In office
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2015
Preceded byEdolphus Towns
Succeeded byJason Chaffetz
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 49th district

Incumbent

Assumed office
January 3, 2003
Preceded bySusan Davis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 48th district
In office
January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Preceded byRon Packard
Succeeded byChristopher Cox
Personal details
BornDarrell Edward Issa
(1953-11-01) November 1, 1953 (age 64)
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Kathy Stanton
ChildrenWilliam
Alma materKent State University at Stark(AA)
Siena Heights University(BA)
Net worth$436,500,015 (est. 2014)[1]
Signature
WebsiteHouse website
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branchUnited States Army
Years of service1970–1972
1976–1980
RankCaptain
[2][3]

Darrell Edward Issa (; born November 1, 1953) is the RepublicanU.S. Representative for California's 49th congressional district, serving in Congress since 2001. His district presently covers the northern coastal areas of San Diego County, including cities such as Oceanside, Vista, Carlsbad, and Encinitas, as well as a small portion of southern Orange County.[4] From January 2011 to January 2015, he served as Chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee.

Issa served as CEO of Directed Electronics, which he co-founded in 1982. It is currently one of the largest makers of automobile aftermarket security and convenience products in the United States. Issa has been named numerous times as the wealthiest currently serving member of Congress.[5][6][7]

On January 10, 2018, Issa announced that he would not seek reelection for his current seat in 2018.[8] However, it was later reported that Issa was considering running for the neighboring 50th District, currently held by embattled Representative Duncan D. Hunter.[9]

Early life, education, and military service

Issa, the second of six children, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Martha (née Bielfelt) and William Issa, who sold trucks and ground valves.[10][11] His father was a Lebanese American of the Maronite Catholic faith[citation needed][12] and his mother is of German and Bohemian (Czech) descent.[13][14] In 2006, he was one of four Arab-American members of Congress.[15]

The family moved to the predominantly Jewish suburb of Cleveland Heights in the later years of his childhood. Many of his friends were Jewish, and Issa reportedly worked for a rabbi at one point. He became very familiar with Jewish culture.[16]

In 1970, on his 17th birthday, Issa dropped out of high school and enlisted for three years in the Army.[16][17] He became an Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technician assigned to the 145th Ordnance Detachment.[18] Trained to defuse bombs, Issa stated that his unit provided security for President Richard Nixon, sweeping stadiums for bombs prior to games in the 1971 World Series.[19] A May 1998 investigation by Lance Williams of the San Francisco Examiner found that Nixon had not attended any of 1971 World Series games, but that Issa's unit did perform security sweeps during the series. After the series, Issa was transferred to a supply depot, a result of receiving poor ratings.[16]

Issa received a hardship discharge from the Army in 1972 after his father suffered a heart attack, and earned a General Educational Development (GED) certificate.[16]

Twice that year, he was arrested. In the first incident, he was indicted by a grand jury for an alleged theft of a Maserati, but prosecutors dropped the charge.[20] In the second incident, he was stopped for driving the wrong way on a one-way street, and a police officer noticed a firearm in his glove compartment; Issa was charged with carrying a concealed weapon. He pleaded guilty to a charge of possession of an unregistered firearm, and was sentenced to six months' probation and a small fine.[20] Issa has said he believes the record has since been expunged.[16]

Issa attended Siena Heights University, a small Roman Catholic college in Adrian, Michigan, followed by Kent State University at Stark, where he enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps and was commissioned as a second lieutenant.[16] He served in the Army Reserve from 1976 to 1980 and was promoted to the rank of captain.[21]

From September 9–26, 1980, Issa served on active duty while training with the 1/77th Armor Battalion as an Assistant S-1. His evaluation report, by then-Lt. Col.Wesley Clark, stated "This officer's performance far exceeded that of any other reserve officer who has worked in the battalion" and "Promote ahead of contemporaries. Unlimited potential."[16][22][23]

Shortly before his discharge from the Army in 1980, Issa was again indicted for grand theft auto. The prosecution dropped the case in August 1980. In 1981, Issa was in a car crash. The other motorist sued Issa for $20,000; they eventually settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.[16]

Business career

Quantum/Steal Stopper

After leaving the military, Issa and his second wife, Kathy Stanton, moved back to the Cleveland area. According to Issa, he and his wife pooled their savings, sold their cars (a 1976 Mercedes and a 1967 VW Beetle) as well as a BMW motorcycle, and borrowed $50,000 from family members to invest in Quantum Enterprises, an electronics manufacturer run by a friend from Cleveland Heights that assembled bug zappers, CB radio parts, and other consumer products for other companies. One of those clients, car alarm manufacturer Steal Stopper, would become the path to Issa's fortune. It was struggling badly, and he took control of it by foreclosing a $60,000 loan he had made to it when its founder, Joey Adkins, missed a payment. Adkins remained as an employee.[16]

Issa soon turned Steal Stopper around, to the point that it was supplying Ford with thousands of car alarms and negotiating a similar deal with Toyota. But early in the morning of September 7, 1982, the offices and factory of Quantum and Steal Stopper in the Cleveland suburb of Maple Heights caught fire. The fire took three hours to put out. The buildings and almost all the inventory within were destroyed. An investigation of the cause of the fire noted "suspicious burn patterns" with fires starting in two places aided by an accelerant such as gasoline.[16]

Adkins said Issa appeared to prepare for a fire by increasing the fire insurance policy by 462% three weeks previously, and by removing computer equipment holding accounting and customer information. St. Paul Insurance, suspicious of arson and insurance fraud, initially paid only $25,000, according to Issa.[16][24]

Directed Electronics

Main article: Directed Electronics

Steal Stopper soon regained its previous prosperity. As car theft rose in the United States during the 1980s, so did the demand for security devices. Rolls Royce, BMW, and General Motors joined Ford and Toyota as customers. In 1985, Issa sold the company to a California-based maker of home alarms, and moved to the San Diego suburb of Vista, where he has lived ever since, to work for the company. Shortly afterward he left to start Directed Electronics, Inc. (DEI).[16]

Issa was able to use his knowledge of the weaknesses in automotive security that car thieves preyed on to develop effective theft deterrents. Using sensors that, when armed, would detect motion and pressure on the body of the car, his device would create loud noise to draw attention to a would-be car thief, such as the car's horn honking or a speaker playing a recording with Issa's voice saying: "Protected by Viper. Stand back" and "Please step away from the car", warnings for DEI's signature product, the Viper car alarm.[25] Sales grew from a million dollars in the company's first year to $14 million by 1989.[16]

Early political career

Activism

With his involvement in consumer-electronicstrade organizations, Issa became politically active. He went to Washington, D.C. to lobby Congress and became one of California's largest individual campaign contributors to Republicancandidates. In 1996 he was chairman of the successful campaign to pass California Proposition 209, a ballot initiative which prohibited public institutions in California from considering race, sex, or ethnicity in the areas of public employment, public contracting, or public education. He was instrumental in persuading the national Republican Party to hold its 1996 convention in San Diego.[3][16]

1998 U.S. Senate election

See also: United States Senate election in California, 1998

Issa's first campaign for elected office was in 1998, when he sought the Republican nomination for United States Senate to run against incumbent DemocratBarbara Boxer. He spent $10 million of his own money in his campaign, running against California State TreasurerMatt Fong, Congressman Frank Riggs, and three others. Fong's campaign raised $3 million from contributions and complained that Issa's wealth made for an uneven playing field (Issa had only $400,000 in contributions from others). An Issa spokesman countered that the money was needed to compensate for Fong's statewide name recognition.[26] Issa lost the primary election to Fong, 45% to 40%; Riggs got 10% of the vote. A San Francisco exit poll suggested large numbers of Asian-Americans, who typically vote in the Democratic Party primary, had crossed party lines to strategically vote for Fong.[27]

U.S. House of Representatives

Elections

2000

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2000 § District 48

Nine-term incumbent Republican U.S. Congressman Ron Packard decided not to run for re-election in 2000, in California's 48th congressional district. Issa ran for Packard's seat, capitalizing on his name recognition from the 1998 Senate race. The district was primarily based in San Diego County, but had small portions in Riverside and Orange counties. Issa finished first in the all-party primary with 35% of the vote, winning a plurality in all three counties; Republican State SenatorBill Morrow was second, with 24% of the votes.[28][29] Issa won the November general election, defeating Democratic nominee Peter Kouvelis 61%–28%.[30][31]

2002

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2002 § District 49

After redistricting, Issa's district was renumbered as the 49th District, and didn't include any of Orange County. Like its predecessor, the district was heavily Republican; it had a Cook Partisan Voting Index (PVI) of R+10. No Democrat filed against Issa that year. He won re-election to a second term by defeating Libertarian nominee Karl Dietrich, 77%–22%.[32]

2004

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2004 § District 49

A write-in candidate from the 2002 election, Mike Byron, went on to become the Democratic challenger in 2004.[33] Issa won re-election to a third term, defeating Byron 63%–35%.[34]

2006

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2006 § District 49

In November 2006, Issa won re-election to a fourth term, defeating Democratic nominee Jeeni Criscenzo, 63%–33%.[35]

2008

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2008 § District 49

In 2008, Issa won re-election to a fifth term, defeating Democratic nominee Robert Hamilton, 58%–37%. The 21-point margin of victory was the second smallest in Issa's career. He carried San Diego with 60% of the vote and Riverside with 57% of the vote.[36]

2010

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2010 § District 49

In 2010, Issa won re-election to a sixth term, defeating Democratic nominee Howard Katz 63%–31%.[37]

2012

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2012 § District 49

Issa's district was significantly redrawn after the 2010 census. It lost its share of Riverside County, along with most of its share of inland San Diego County. These were replaced with a small portion of southern Orange County. The district was much more competitive on paper than its predecessor. The old 49th had a PVI of R+10, while the new 49th has a PVI of R+4.[citation needed]

Issa won re-election to a seventh term, defeating the Democratic nominee, Jerry Tetalman, 58%–42%. The sixteen-point margin of victory was the smallest in Issa's political career. Issa carried the San Diego portion of his district with just 55% of the vote, while he dominated the Orange County part with 66% of the vote.[38][39]

2014

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2014 § District 49

The open primary in June 2014 was contested by Issa and two Democrats: Dave Peiser and Noboru Isaga. The top two vote getters, Issa (62%) and Peiser (28%), advanced to the general election.[40][41] In the November election Issa was elected to an eighth term, 60% to 40%.[42][43]

2016

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2016 § District 49

In the open primary in June 2016, Issa received 51% of the vote to 46% for Democrat Doug Applegate, a retired Marine Colonel.[44] Issa and Applegate both advanced to the general election in November.[45] In October, Applegate and Issa were seen by the Cook Political Report as equally likely to win the election.

Issa sent out a campaign mailer which featured a photograph of President Barack Obama signing a law. The mailer stated that Issa was "very pleased" that Obama signed the Sexual Assault Survivors’ Rights Act which Issa had co-sponsored. Obama responded to the mailer by saying that Issa's "primary contribution to the US Congress has been to obstruct and to waste taxpayer dollars on trumped up investigations that have led nowhere." Obama said that, because of fading support for Donald Trump, Issa was now promoting his cooperation with the president despite Issa's previous stance that Obama was corrupt.[46]

Issa responded by saying, "I've worked with the administration on good legislation where it was possible, called out wrongdoing wherever I saw it and will continue to do so."[47]

As of November 23, 2016, Issa held a 3,234-vote lead with approximately 6,000 ballots remaining uncounted. Issa declared victory in the race, while Applegate had not yet conceded.[48] The Associated Press finally declared Issa the winner on November 28, citing a small but convincing lead with only a few votes left to count.[49]

2018

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2018 § District 49

Multiple Democrats, including 2016 candidate Doug Applegate and environmental attorney Mike Levin, launched campaigns for California's 49th district.[50] Given the close margin of victory over Applegate in 2016, the election has been expected to be highly competitive.[51] On January 10, 2018, Issa announced that he would not run for re-election.[8]

Tenure

Oversight committee

After the 2008 elections, Issa was appointed ranking member of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform ahead of some more senior colleagues. Chairman Edolphus Towns clashed with Issa when Issa sought to investigate Countrywide Financial, which had granted DemocraticU.S. SenatorsChris Dodd and Kent Conrad loans with especially favorable terms. Republicans had filmed Democrats leaving the room after a canceled hearing on Countrywide; Towns then changed the locks to bar Republicans from the room. They clashed again when Issa sought a special prosecutor to consider whether the Obama administration had unlawfully offered a federal job to Joe Sestak as an inducement to refrain from running against Arlen Specter for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania. Towns and Issa did cooperate on some matters, improving transparency of some federal agency reports, and a Government Accountability Office examination of the Federal Reserve.[citation needed]

Following the 2010 elections, Issa became chairman. He became a vocal advocate for investigations into the Obama administration, including the Troubled Assets Relief Program, the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, corruption in Afghanistan, WikiLeaks, and the Food and Drug Administration, among other issues.[52] In 2010 he told the press that he wanted the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform to hold investigative hearings "seven hearings a week, times 40 weeks."[53]

In February 2011, the Watchdog Institute, a nonprofit investigative reporting center based at San Diego State University, published an investigation alleging that as leader of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, he built a team which included staff members with close connections to industries that could benefit from his investigations.[54]

On February 16, 2012, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform held a hearing on the Department of Health and Human Services's regulation requiring insurance plans to cover birth control, which Issa believes is a violation of the religious freedom of people who oppose the use of birth control. Sandra Fluke was submitted as a witness by Democratic members, but Issa did not permit her to testify, saying her name was submitted too late,[55] a claim which was challenged by Democrats.[56]

Legislation

In 2013 Issa introduced the Digital Accountability and Transparency Act of 2013 (H.R. 2061; 113th Congress).[57] H.R. 2061 aimed to make information on federal expenditures more easily available, accessible, and transparent.[58] The bill was signed into law by Obama on May 9, 2014.[59]

Issa introduced the FOIA Oversight and Implementation Act of 2014 (H.R. 1211; 113th Congress) on March 15, 2013. It was a proposed bill that would have amended the Freedom of Information Act in order to make it easier and faster to request and receive information.[60][61] The bill would have required the Office of Management and Budget to create a single FOIA website for people to use to make FOIA requests and check on the status of their request. The bill would also have created a Chief FOIA Officers Council charged with reviewing compliance and recommending improvements.[60] It would also have required the federal agency to release the information it disclosed to the person who requested it publicly afterwards.[61]

Issa argued in favor of the bill because it "shifts the burden of proof from the public requestor seeking information about a government agency...to the government being open and transparent unless it has a good reason to withhold."[62] The bill passed unanimously in the United States House of Representatives on February 25, 2014.[63] However, a nearly identical senate bill failed when it was tabled by House Speaker John Boehner.[64]

Issa introduced the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (H.R. 1232; 113th Congress) on March 18, 2013. It is a proposed bill that would make changes and reforms to the current framework that manages how the federal government buys new technology.[65] One of the requirements would be that the government develop a streamlined plan for its acquisitions.[66] The bill would increase the power of existing Chief Information Officers (CIO) within federal agencies so that they could be more effective.[67]

Each agency would also be reduced to having only one CIO in the agency, who is then responsible for the success and failure of all IT projects in that agency.[68] The bill would also require the federal government to make use of private sector best practices.[67] The bill was intended to reduce IT procurement related waste.[69] It passed the House in a voice vote on February 25, 2014.[66] In December 2014 it was passed as a section of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015.[70]

On May 7, 2014, Issa introduced a simple resolution in the House that passed without objection Recommending that the House of Representatives find Lois G. Lerner, former Director, Exempt Organizations, Internal Revenue Service, in contempt of Congress for refusal to comply with a subpoena duly issued by the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. The resolution holds Lois Lerner, one of the central Internal Revenue Service officials involved in the 2013 IRS scandal, in contempt of Congress for her refusal to testify about the scandal before Issa's committee in response to a subpoena.[71][72]

Bombing plot

In 2001, Issa's district office in San Clemente was targeted in an aborted bombing plot. Jewish Defense League leader Irving Rubin was arrested along with Earl Krugel in connection with the plot, which reportedly had focused on other targets before shifting to Issa's office.[13][73] Issa speculated that the cause of the incident may have been a column written by political commentator Debbie Schlussel in which she charged that Issa sympathized with Hezbollah despite its being listed by the U.S. government as a terrorist organization, charges he denied.[13][74][75]

Ethics complaint and award

In September 2011, a liberal advocacy and lobbying group, American Family Voices, filed a complaint with the Office of Congressional Ethics against Issa, alleging he had repeatedly used his public office for personal financial gain.[how?] Issa's office rejected the allegations.[76]

The year before that the Project on Government Oversight, a government watchdog group, awarded Issa with its Good Government Award for his contributions to government oversight and transparency. These included publicizing documents produced by the New York Federal Reserve Bank in response to a congressional subpoena, publicly exposing the NYFR's secret "back-door bailout" of AIG's counterparties, and cofounding a Transparency Caucus dedicated to "promoting a more open and accountable government through education, legislation, and oversight."[77][78]

Committee assignments

Political positions

As of 1 March 2017, Issa has voted with his party in 98.1% of votes so far in the current session of Congress and voted in line with President Trump's position in 100% of the votes.[80][81] Issa voted with the majority of House Republicans 95% of the time during the 111th Congress.[82]

9/11 first responders

In April 2008, the Daily News reported that Issa questioned federal expenditures pertaining to disability-compensation claims from 9/11 first responders. He was criticized for making comments that the federal government "'just threw' buckets of cash at New York for an attack 'that had no dirty bomb in it, it had no chemical munitions in it'" and asking "why the firefighters who went there and everybody in the city of New York needs to come to the federal government for the dollars versus this being primarily a state consideration."[83] In September 2009, Issa's office released a statement indicating that his comments had been misrepresented and that the questions he asked concerned the then still unpassed bill H.R. 3543, which, according to that statement "would give U.S. taxpayer dollars to those who did not suffer physical injury and did not work at or around Ground Zero."[84][85]

2003 gubernatorial recall election

Issa came to national prominence in 2003 when he contributed more than $1.6 million to help fund a signature-gathering drive for the petition to recall California Governor Gray Davis. At the time he made the contribution, it was widely believed that Issa intended to place himself on the ballot to replace Davis. However, following the entrance of fellow Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger into the race, two days before the filing deadline, Issa announced that he would not run.[86] Issa later said his mission had been accomplished with Davis' recall and that he wanted to continue to represent his district in Congress and work towards Middle East peace.[20] At one point in the campaign he suggested people [clarification needed] should vote against recalling Davis unless one of the two leading Republican contenders dropped out, concerned that Schwarzenegger and fellow Republican Tom McClintock would split votes, resulting in Democratic Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante being elected to succeed Davis.[87] Issa endorsed Schwarzenegger in the election.

Abortion

Issa opposes abortion.[88]

Bribes

In February 2017, he voted in favor of repealing a rule that required energy companies to disclose payments to foreign governments.[80]

Cannabis

Issa has a "D" rating from NORML based on his cannabis-related voting record.[89]

Donald Trump

Issa attracted attention for his close relationship with and strong support for Donald Trump during the 2016 presidential election.[90][91][92] Issa endorsed Trump in March 2016[93] and did not rescind his endorsement after the Donald Trump and Billy Bush recording surfaced.[94]

In early February 2017, Issa expressed his support for a special prosecutor to look into President Donald Trump's ties to Russia. On 27 February, he walked back his previous comments.[95] Issa supported Trump's dismissal of FBI Director James Comey, saying "Comey had lost my confidence long ago."[96]

As of May 2017, Issa has voted in line with Trump's positions 100 percent of the time.[97]

Education

He has been critical of No Child Left Behind, supporting a modification that would, in his words, "give states the freedom to adopt best practices for their students by returning flexibility and control to the educators and parents who are the real experts on education".[98]

Environment

Issa rejects the scientific consensus on climate change and has stated there is no scientific consensus on climate[99] and that scientists have falsified data.[100]

Before the 2010 election, Issa pledged that, if elected, he would probe "Climategate", which refers to the hacked Climatic Research Unit e-mails that climate change denialists falsely asserted showed scientific misconduct and fraud by climate scientists.[101] Issa called President Obama's unwillingness to investigate Climategate "unconscionable" and an abdication of responsibility.[102]

In 2009, he voted against the American Clean Energy and Security Act.[103] He opposes federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions.[88] In February 2017, he voted to repeal a rule that required coal companies to restore streams and mined areas to their pre-development conditions.[80]

The League of Conservation Voters has condemned Issa's actions related to the environment, stating, "As chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, Congressman Issa is not only denying climate change, but also actively impeding federal action, pledging to hold hearings on the ‘Politicization of Science,’ and calling for greater oversight of the EPA’s regulations of greenhouse gases."[104]

Foreign and defense policy

In 2001, Issa voted for the authorization of the PATRIOT Act and the creation of the Department of Homeland Security.[105][not in citation given] He voted for the reauthorization of the Patriot Act in 2005 after successfully amending it to require judicial notification, reporting requirements and facts justifying the use of roving survelliance at new facilities or places.[106]

Issa is one of several Lebanese-Americans in Congress.[107] He has had a significant role in U.S. peace initiatives in the Middle East. He traveled to Lebanon and Syria in an effort to negotiate the end of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon. In 2003, he appeared at a Washington rally by Iranian groups protesting against the Islamic government in Iran.[108]

In March 2015, Issa supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, saying: "We must make it clear that we will support our allies and punish our enemies through steadfast resolve and decisive action."[109]

Healthcare

He favors repealing the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), and voted in support of the budget resolution to repeal Obamacare in January 2017.[88][80]

On May 4, 2017, Issa voted in favor of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) and passing the American Health Care Act.[110][111] Issa made the tie-breaking vote to pass the AHCA.[112][113]

Healthcare vote reactions

The organization San Diego Indivisible protests outside Issa's office weekly.[114]

After Darrell Issa voted to pass the AHCA, about 800 people from the organization protested, decrying that a significant portion of Issa's voters use the ACA.[114] The group was also unhappy about a picture taken where Issa stood "front and center" for a photo op held in tribute to the success of the Republicans in passing the AHCA.[112]

Instead of coming back to California to meet the protesters, Issa flew to an event in Florida to raise money, though he says he will meet with them at a later date.[112][114]

The following Friday, over 100 people protested his desire to defund Planned Parenthood.[114]

An organization called Save My Care spent $500,000 to release a series of attack ads against 24 House members who voted for the AHCA, including one about Issa.[115][116]

LGBT issues

Issa opposes same-sex marriage.[88] He voted against an amendment, which ultimately failed narrowly, that stated that religious corporations, associations and institutions that receive federal contracts can't be discriminated against on the basis of religion. Democrats warn that such a provision could potentially allow discrimination against the LGBT community in the name of religious freedom.[117]

Immigration

He has opposed attempts to ease restrictions on illegal immigration such as the "Blue Card" system, arguing that it provides amnesty for illegal immigrants.[118]

Online piracy

Issa is opposed to the Stop Online Piracy Act based on the amount of discretion the Department of Justice would have under the legislation as it is currently drafted. He plans to propose amendments that would reduce that discretion.[119] He subsequently went on to cosponsor the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act.[120][not in citation given]

Russian hacking of 2016 election

Issa has stated that he believes Russia meddled with the 2016 election, but that he supports Trump's firing of FBI Director Comey (who was leading the investigation into the 2016 election meddling), and he believes the US should be focusing on other issues.[121]

Science

Issa supports embryonic stem cell research and has voted to allow it.[122]

He co-sponsored both the 2008 and 2009 versions of the Fair Copyright in Research Works Act and sponsored the Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) introduced in 2011, all of which aim at a reversal of the NIH's Public Access Policy,[123] which mandatesopen access to NIH-funded research.[124]

Issa has periodically tried to de-fund grants offered by the National Institutes of Health.[125] He alleged that the NIH was spending $5 million "on foreign alcoholics and prostitutes."[125] The grants in question were on research on HIV/AIDS prevention.[125]

Tax reform

Issa voted no on the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. He was one of two California Republicans to vote against the bill, alongside Dana Rohrabacher.[126] Issa expressed concern that "many" of his constituents would face increased taxes under the proposal and that “Californians have entrusted me to fight for them. I will not make the incredible tax burden they already endure even worse.”[127]

Vaccine controversy

Issa has chaired House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearings on vaccines and their unsubstantiated relationship with autism.[128][129]

Whistleblowers

Issa supported the All Circuit Review Extension Act (H.R. 4197; 113th Congress), a bill that would extend for three years the authority for federal employees who appeal a judgment of the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) to file their appeal at any federal court, instead of only the U.S. Court of Appeals.[130][131] Issa argued that "whistleblowers are a critical asset for congressional oversight" and that extending the pilot program would give Congress "more time to gauge the impact of an 'all circuit' review."[131]

See also

References

  1. ^"Darrell Issa Net Worth". OpenSecrets.org. Retrieved 8 May 2017. 
  2. ^"Darrell Issa". Federal Directory(fee via Fairfax County Public Library). Bethesda, MD: Carroll Publishing. 2011. Gale Document Number: GALE |K2415002216. Retrieved September 7, 2013.  Biography In Context. (subscription required)
  3. ^ abBarone, Michael; Chuck McCutcheon (2011). The Almanac of American Politics 2012. Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. pp. 267–69. ISBN 978-0-226-03807-0. 
  4. ^"District 49"(PDF). California Redistricting Commission certified map. Healthy City. August 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  5. ^"Wealth of Congress Index". Roll Call. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  6. ^Hall, Matthew T. (August 20, 2013). "Issa now wealthiest member of Congress"Archived February 22, 2014, at Archive.is, UTSanDiego.com; accessed November 11, 2016.
  7. ^Gordon, Noah (September 9, 2014). "How Did Members of Congress Get So Wealthy?". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ abMarcos, Cristina (January 10, 2018). "Issa retiring from Congress". The Hill. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  9. ^http://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/368513-exclusive-issa-mulls-running-in-neighboring-district
  10. ^Leduff, Charlie (July 23, 2003). "California Recall Backer Feels Heat". Nytimes.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  11. ^"Los Angeles Times: The Rock, the Hard Place and the Man in the Middle". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. September 1, 2002. Retrieved September 30, 2013. (Subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^"Darrell Issa - About - Facebook". Retrieved November 12, 2016. 
  13. ^ abc

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