Essay #1.Chemical bonds are essential to building the molecules of life.a. In 3 paragraphs, describe the following bond types and how they are significant to life on earth: ionic, covalent (polar and non-polar), hydrogen, and Van der Wahls (interactions).b. How is energy transferred between these bonds and what role does oxygen play in the formation and breaking of bonds?Life as we know it depends upon the formation and breaking of chemical bonds. Chemical bonds are the attractive forces held between two or more atoms to help maintain the formation of a molecule. There are four major types of bonds that result from this attraction: Ionic bonds, Covalent bonds, Hydrogen bonds, and Van der Waal forces. Each bond plays its own important role, and will continue to do so, in the development and maintenance of our world. Ionic bonding is the total transfer of valance electrons between atoms. This is a result of the two atoms radically inequivalent attraction for valance electrons. The outcome of these kinds of bonds is the formation of two ions. An ion is basically an atom with an electric charge. Ions with a positive charge is called a cation (cat-ion), and negatively charged ions are called anions. Because these two ions have opposite charges, anions and cations are attracted to one another; this attraction is called an ionic bond. The environment affects the strength of ionic bonds. Dry salt crystals have such strong bonds that it often takes a hammer and chisel to crack the crystal. However, if that same salt crystal were to be dissolved by water, the ionic bonds would be much weaker, because each ion is partially shielded by its interaction with water molecules. This is why most drugs are manufactured as salts because they are quite stable when dry but can dissociate easily in water.A Covalent bond occurs when two or more atoms share a pair of valance electrons. Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds constitute a molecule. Each molecule has a characteristic size and shape. The geometry of amolecule determines the characteristics of the molecule, and is important to its function within the living cell. Each of these atoms have a bonding capacity (valance) corresponding to the number of covalent bonds the atom can form. Once these bonds have been formed, they give the atom a full complements of electrons in the valance shell. Atoms that belong to the noble gas group of elements are generally unreactive and do not form chemical bonds because their valence electron shells are completely full and balanced. The atoms balance usually equals the number of unpaired electrons that are required to fill that atoms outer most valance shell. The force that attracts the particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond is called electronegativity. The more electronegative an atom is, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself.
Bonds and The Bond Market Essay
3283 Words14 Pages
Bonds and The Bond Market
Given today's uncertain economy, many people are taking time to examine various options for their financial future. Different types of investments are investigated and bonds are one of the more popular choices considered. Many of the same people who talk about investing in bonds, however, do not fully understand them nor where they place in the economy. Many individuals believe that they should simply buy a bond and wait until it matures before cashing it in. These people fail to realize that they may be losing a lot of money due to the fluctuation of bond prices. At some point it may be more profitable for them to sell…show more content…
As shown in the chart on the following page, the return rate on bonds has surpassed the inflation rate. Bonds have averaged an interest rate of over six and a half percent, while the inflation rate has averaged under four and a half percent. Although it may seem like an insignificant amount of interest, over time, this difference in interest rates can lead to extremely large profits. If you invested $1 000 dollars in bonds in 1950, by the end of 1995 you would have acquired $17 630. While according to the Consumer Price Index (the cost of living rate), you would only need $7 000 to have the same buying power that you would have had in 1950. That is a difference of $10 630 in purchasing power that you would have gained. This increase in purchasing power seems very significant; however, you must also realize that these profits do not include the numerous times when you could have sold out of your bond for an even greater return. You must also realize that the large difference between bonds and stocks is not fairly represented as well. Although the stocks show a $79 750 increase over the inflation rate, you must keep in mind that stocks carry a lot more risk than bonds do; this volatility could lead to an enormous loss in money if your money is not invested in the