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Essays On Teaching English As A Foreign Language

Teaching Foreign Languages To Young Learners

Introduction
In an increasingly globalized world the ability to exchange ideas and communicate in a language other than one’s first language has been considered highly important. The necessity of teaching foreign languages to Young Learners (aged 5-12 years old) has been widely recognized and, as a result, recent years have witnessed an explosion in the number of children learning English as a foreign language as part of their primary education. In fact, in many countries worldwide a tendency to lower the age at which school children begin their foreign language learning has been noticed. As young language learners comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the primary school population, there is an extensive interest in their learning. This entails a growth of concern about their appropriate assessment since assessment has always been regarded as an integral part of the everyday teaching practice (Ioannou-Georgiou & Pavlou, 2003; Linn & Miller, 2005; McKay, 2006).
Assessment is included in evaluation which is the umbrella term referring to all the types of activities that require the exercise of judgement. Even though the terms have frequently been used interchangeably in the relative literature, Bachman (1990) argues that their distinctive characteristics render their separate definitions necessary. More particularly, evaluation is a broad concept “primarily about decision making” (Genesee & Upshur, 1996: 4). Although it “is a natural and recurring activity of our daily existence” (Karavas, 2004: 151), when we engage in evaluation in an educational setting, its consequences are serious, powerful and far reaching. Evaluation involves making a wide variety of choices concerning instructional plans, methodological approaches, teaching materials and resources, curriculum and course design, school conditions and staffing and, certainly, language learning (West, 2004a). Since evaluation affects the lives of many people, it should be a systematic and well-thought-out process based on carefully defined criteria. As Genesee (2001: 144) so aptly summarizes it, evaluation is:
“a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmes”.
From an instructional standpoint, assessment is that part of evaluation that determines the nature and extent of student learning and development. It focuses on gathering data and deciding on “a learner’s level of skills and knowledge” (Nunan, 1990:62). According to Linn and Miller (2005), assessment answers the question of how well individuals perform. It includes a range of procedures that provide quantitative and qualitative information about student learning and help the formation of value judgments about their learning progress and growth. It must be underlined that the term is inclusive of both formal and informal methods of monitoring learner performance; that is,...

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Dual Language Programs Essay

965 words - 4 pages Beyond English Development: Bilingual Approaches to Teaching Immigrant Students and English Language Learners What a feeling! Learning a new language gives individuals a new way of thinking and feeling. Learning a new kind of language involves having total commitment and total involvement from students and teachers. In the article, Beyond English Development: Bilingual Approaches to Teaching Immigrant Students and English Language Learners...

English - The Most Important Second Language

2713 words - 11 pages 1. English - the most important second language Over 700 million people in the world speak English and it is the international language of diplomacy, business, science, technology, banking, computing, medicine, engineering, tourism, and Hollywood films. Furthermore two-thirds of German companies anticipate that applicants have thorough knowledge of English. Therefore teachers have to advance students' foreign language competences as early...

The Benefits of Teaching Foreign Language in Elementary School

1462 words - 6 pages The Benefits of Teaching Foreign Language in Elementary School The ultimate goal in many classrooms is to communicate in meaningful and appropriate ways (Slavit 1998). In the United States, American students get the opportunity to learn a second language in high school, yet it has been proven that children learn better when they are young. Some schools are taking this opportunity to teach a foreign language to elementary students. The...

Learning Styles: Differences In Children’s Minds

2204 words - 9 pages Learning Styles: Differences In Children’s Minds Many Community college students are unable to exit remedial college preparatory programs and advance into credit courses (Rochford 2003). Experts may say it is due to the inability of teachers to teach using methods. Different people may have different learning styles. Student populations have become more diverse, the ability to teach to the needs of different learners has become increasingly...

Education: The Imperative Need for Earlier Foreign Language Study

2422 words - 10 pages No one wishes to feel inadequate. Whilst this statement may be a generality, there are very few people in this world who do not desire to reach their full potential. Humankind is always progressing, always attempting to better itself. Dismissing and breaking limits is what people do best. Why then do Arizonans willingly submit themselves as well as their children to self-imposed limitations? The bourne Arizonans have created is not in what they...

Principled Eclecticism

3072 words - 12 pages In everyday life related activities; individuals tend to look for the best technique and process to execute and successfully achieve a task. This can be seen as an innate nature of human beings who are skilled with the capability and capacity of thinking and distinguishing things in advance in relation to how a task or a sequence of tasks need to be completed using the most effective and viable way with the obtainable resources. When...

Bilingual Education based on my experience.

553 words - 2 pages I wish I were an American. When I was a high school student, I blamed my fate for having been born in America but then taken back to Pakistan for five years which caused me to forget to speak English and when I came back five years later I had to learn everything all over again. If I were an American, I wouldn't need to study English as...

Taking Advantage of One’s Early Years: Learning a Second Language

1390 words - 6 pages Being able to fluently speak two languages is a very demanding and competitive skill. The capability to articulate thoughts to people who may not speak the same primary language as you is very profitable not only in the work force, but also in everyday life. Learning a second language also helps to shorten cultural gaps between different countries. With the seemingly increased importance in learning a second language, schools nationwide have...

The Indian Paradigmatic Policy of the 1990s

1807 words - 7 pages The paradigmatic policy shift which took place in the 1990’s, opened the gates of Indian economy to a new era of liberalization, globalization and privatization. The socio economic changes which resulted from the revolutionary shift in perspective brought with it a new age of language teaching/training in India. A shift from General English language training to a more specific, requirement based and contextualized English language training gained...

Using phonemic transcription in teaching English pronunciation in schools in Hong Kong

2502 words - 10 pages MAAL6017 Phonology Name: Hung Hing Lai, Gary University Number:2013912666 Using phonemic transcription in teaching English pronunciation in schools in Hong Kong1. IntroductionToday English is the most widely taught language in the world and Hong Kong is no exception. There is no doubt that

Bilingualism: The Key to Personal and National Progress

2054 words - 8 pages Since the conception of the United States there has been no official national language, however, English has long been the formal language of choice in America. It is used in nearly all forms of communication both internally and internationally from politics, science, marketing and any other discipline one can think of. The United States has an overwhelming focus on integrating its citizens into speaking English, but a minimal amount of effort is...

Methodological Eclecticism In Teaching English As A Foreign Language

Methodological Eclecticism in Teaching English as a Foreign Language

"Eclectic", remarks Atkinson (1988, p. 42), "is one of the buzz words in TEFL at present, in part due to the realization that for the foreseeable future good language teaching is likely to continue to be based more on common sense, insights drawn from classroom experience, informed discussion among teachers, etc., than on any monolithic model of second language acquisition or all-embracing theory of learning . . . ". One problem with this position is that your "common sense" and your "insights" are apt to be different from mine. Another is that "discussion among teachers", though valuable, is often a futile exercise in the blind leading the blind. No one with some knowledge of pedagogy and psychology would advocate a "monolithic model" of anything in teaching today. However, unless one has some theoretical foundation to one's knowledge, one cannot construct a methodology of anything--including of foreign language teaching. The aim of this paper is to examine rudimentarily such foundation, and to propose an eclectic approach to teaching English to speakers of other languages.
Learning theories and TEFL
     "It appears counterproductive to dissect language in the same way that biology students might dissect a frog" (Maurice 1987, p. 9). Learners do not expect curriculum designers and teachers to dissect language on the basis of pure linguistic science, but they do expect them to dissect language on the basis of applied linguistics and psycholinguistics to the extent that such analyses throw light on how language is applied and on who will do the applying. The foci, then, are on teaching methodology and learning capacity, rather than on the intricate works of linguisticians. Notes that teachers, moreover, need a functional dose of anthropology, sociology, and cybernetics if they are to grow as professionals. It does not hurt, of course, if they know more than one language and have been in close contact with other cultures.
     Now "discussions on teaching methods tend to be plagued by overgeneralizations both with respect to the way they are classified and with respect to the way they are evaluated" (MacKenzie, Eraut, & Jones 1972, p. 124). When one compares pedagogical methods, some startling facts come to light. One, for example, is that methods vacillate between a behavioral approach which considers the learner as a programmable mechanical device, and a humanistic (or pseudo-humanistic) approach which is undisciplined and considers the learner as a malleable self-directed positively motivated and intelligent social and cultural unit. Talk about monolithism!
     Two curricula and methodologies are essentially teacher-centered or pre-determined curriculum-centered, as opposed to being learner-centered. They are developed on the basis of a linear and group-addressed program, rather than on a semi-linear or even random program derived from individual learners' feedback....

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Practice for Teaching English as a Second Language to Students in Hong Kong: Analyzing my Own Classroom Interaction

2143 words - 9 pages Introduction Classroom interaction has been widely recognized as one of the most crucial factors in a second language classroom that allows second language learning to take place. As pointed out by Tsui (1995: 11), ."..the language used affects the nature of interaction, which in turn affects the opportunities for learning that are made available." This statement is exceptionally true in Hong Kong context because English are seldom used by...

English Language Teaching Essay

5936 words - 24 pages Topic Literature Review: English Language Teaching Strategies for Learning-Disabled Secondary School Students Introduction      One of the aims of the Singapore Ministry of Education is to ensure that all school-going children receive a minimum ten years of general education. Streaming is one way to ensure that all students are taught according to their academic ability, and “learn at a pace which they...

a essay about a mother that get killed in the Omagh bombming; mixture of facts and my imagination P.S.: English as a foreign language

1444 words - 6 pages The one cruel action that changed my life forever......My mother is dead, my father is an alcoholic on anti-depressives, my brother is a terrorist and I'm a lonely, sorrowful pre school teacher who is trying to find my way back to life.The story I want to tell, started the night our mother went to the shop and never came back; ever.We were until that day an ordinary lower middle-class family. My parents had chosen to move...

The Benefits of Teaching Foreign Language in Elementary School

1462 words - 6 pages The Benefits of Teaching Foreign Language in Elementary School The ultimate goal in many classrooms is to communicate in meaningful and appropriate ways (Slavit 1998). In the United States, American students get the opportunity to learn a second language in high school, yet it has been proven that children learn better when they are young. Some schools are taking this opportunity to teach a foreign language to elementary students. The...

Errors and error correction in teaching foreign language

771 words - 3 pages Learning a foreign language can be compared to ice-skating: Everyone is afraid to fall. From the point of view of a learner/student, the possibility of making a mistake is more present here than in other subjects; second language is a completely new world, with different rules, structures, devices. Equally present is the fear of making a mistake, which often holds back the student. Feelings like "I'd rather be quiet than say something stupid"...

Culture and Foreign Language: Teaching and Learning

2798 words - 11 pages In this subsection, different approaches to teaching culture within the foreign language teaching practice and different views of the term “culture” are going to be presented as a mean to explore the close relationship between culture and language and determine what is understood as culture in this study. As it was mentioned above, there are different definitions of culture. These views have relied on the different language acquisition...

Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners

2185 words - 9 pages 1. Introduction Grammar and Vocabulary are the two foundations of English language and they affect each other individually. Therefore, both of them should be emphasize in English language teaching. According to Greenbaum and Nelson (2002), Grammar refers to the set of rules that allow people to combine words in language into larger units. Mastering grammar well will contribute greatly to reading, writing and speaking. In grammar leaning, the...

An Examination of the Dogme Method of Language acquisition in English Language Teaching

1292 words - 5 pages Initially Dogme is a filmmaking technique established in 1995 by a group of Danish directors when they tried to create more successful films with fewer preparations. Meddings and Thornbury (2009, 104) state that “Dogme demands that no props are introduced to the authentic film location…and the sole use of hand-held camera”. Eventually this technique was obtained as a teaching method since sometimes teachers may face a lack of materials which can...

English as a Second Language in China

620 words - 2 pages In contemporary society, English, which is studied as the second language, has become an international language. China is a typical example showing the popularity of English around the world. More specifically, Chinese students have even been studying English in their primary school. Because of different cultures, histories, and religious, the Chinese and English languages have a multitude of dissimilarities. Chinese students have enormous...

English as a Global Language

1570 words - 6 pages Having a lingua franca is vital for communicating with people around the globe and would seem ideal, but what costs does it come with? Due to the United States power right now, it seems English is quickly filling this role. “Many would reasonably claim that, in the fields of business, academics, science, computing, education, transportation, politics and entertainment, English is already established as the de facto lingua franca” (Mastin, 2011)....

English as a second language

4332 words - 17 pages To what extend does awareness of English-speaking countries cultures how Vietnamese learn English as a second language?Centre # 004890Candidate number #0025Abstract:ContentsAbstract 2Content 4Introduction 4Background research 4The study 9Research question 9Aim of research...

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