How To Write Aims And Objectives For Dissertation
The objective of your dissertation explains why you are undertaking your research. It should describe what you specifically want to achieve through your investigation and what you will study. You should identify this objective as part of your problem definition.
Formulating a dissertation objective
The key here is to remember that your goal is not to solve a problem, as this goes beyond your capacity as a researcher. Your objective should instead identify what your study itself will achieve.
For example, a company where you are interning may ask you to investigate why its Facebook page is receiving a declining number of “likes.” It’s likely that the company believes that understanding these causes will help it to solve the problem.
In this case, however, your goal is to focus on just the “why”; the company itself will use the results of your analysis to decide the “how” on its own.
If your work is more theoretical, your objective may be to explore if a particular model is relevant for a specific situation or to identify the attitudes that members of a sample population have on a given topic.
Remember, your objectives need to be grounded in your preliminary research and problem definition.
Example of a problem definition
Example dissertation objectives
The aim of the research is to determine how the teachers’ skills can be improved so that they are able to better recognize and assist gifted students.
The objective of the research is to use quantitative and qualitative research methods to gain insight into why the number of “likes” on the Facebook page is dropping among company X’s target audience.
Why do you need to set an objective for dissertation?
By setting an objective, you demonstrate the relevance of your research and ensure that everyone involved in it has the same expectations.
The objective reveals the relevance of your research, which may vary.
In theoretical research, the goal is often to expand existing knowledge on a particular subject. If your research is more practical, the objective may be more socially relevant. For instance, the above example about understanding the skills that would help teachers to better identify and guide gifted students has social relevance.
Create appropriate expectations
A good objective creates clear expectations and avoids problems later in the research process.
If you are writing your dissertation on a topic requested by a particular organization, it’s especially important to ensure that you and that “client” have the same expectations. Remember that your aim is to not to find a ready-made solution to a problem, as solving the problem is not your job.
Tips for identifying a good dissertation objective
Step 1: Define your problem
Your problem definition should serve as the basis for setting the objective of your dissertation.
Step 2: Identify the components of your dissertation objective
- The type of research you will undertake
- The relevance of the research
- The client’s needs/desires (if relevant)
Step 3: Formulate the objective using a standard structure
Examples of structures for an objective
This research aims to obtain knowledge and insight concerning… and to …
The objective of the study is to … by ….
You also need to create a problem statement
In addition to setting an objective, you also need to formulate a problem statement that describes the problem or issue that needs to be resolved.
On to your main research question!
Once you have established your objective and problem statement, it’s time to move on to formulating your main research question and associated sub-questions.
You’re ready, you’re aimed, and now you have to fire off the objectives. But you’re a bit confused. What”s the difference between the two?
An aims-objectives confusion might arise when you are writing thesis proposal and the introductory thesis chapter. It’s always an issue in research bids. The what’s-the-difference question can have you going around in ever smaller unproductive circles if you can’t figure out a way to differentiate between the two things. And the difference is something I’ve recently been asked about, so I’ve decided to post something of an answer.
Dictionaries are only vaguely helpful when thinking about aims and objectives. My desk dictionary says that an aim is to do with giving direction. An aim is “something intended or desired to be obtained by one’s efforts”. On the other hand an objective is to do with achieving an object, it’s about actions, “pertaining to that whose delineation is known”. Now who actually speaks like this? The fact that these definitions are offered in this very formal language doesn’t help clarify matters. But, once past the antiquated expression, you might discern that the difference between the two is somehow related to a hope or ambition (aim) versus a material action (objective). Or we might say – and it is what is commonly said about aims and objectives – the aim is the what of the research, and the objective is the how.
So taking this what-how as a kind of loose and sloppy differentiation between the two, the rough rule of thumb with aims and objectives is generally that:
(1) The aim is about what you hope to do, your overall intention in the project. It signals what and/or where you aspire to be by the end. It’s what you want to know. It is the point of doing the research. An aim is therefore generally broad. It is ambitious, but not beyond possibility.
The convention is that an aim is usually written using an infinitive verb – that is, it’s a to + action. So aims often start something like.. My aim in this project is … to map, to develop, to design, to track, to generate, to theorise, to build … Sometimes in the humanities and social sciences we have aims which attempt to acknowledge the inevitable partiality of what we do, so we aim ‘to investigate, to understand, and to explore… ‘ But lots of project reviewers and supervisors prefer to see something less tentative than this – they want something much less ambivalent, something more like to synthesise, to catalogue, to challenge, to critically interrogate ….
(2) The objectives, and there are usually more than one, are the specific steps you will take to achieve your aim. This is where you make the project tangible by saying how you are going to go about it.
Objectives are often expressed through active sentences. So, objectives often start something like In order to achieve this aim, I will… collect, construct, produce, test, trial, measure, document, pilot, deconstruct, analyse… Objectives are often presented as a (1) (2) (3) formatted list – this makes visible the sequence of big steps in the project. The list of objectives spells out what you actually and really will do to get to the point of it all.
You have to make the objectives relatively precise. Having a bunch of vague statements isn’t very helpful – so ‘I will investigate’ or ‘I will explore’ for example aren’t particularly useful ways to think about the research objectives. How will you know when an investigation has ended? How will you draw boundaries around an exploration? In thinking about the answer to these questions, you are likely to come up with the actual objectives.
Objectives have to be practical, do-able and achievable. Research reviewers generally look to see if the time and money available for the research will genuinely allow the researcher to achieve their objectives. They also look to see if the objectives are possible, actually research-able.
Because the objectives also act as project milestones, it’s helpful to express them as things that are able to be completed – so for example scoping an archive of materials will have an end point which may then lead on to a next stage/objective. Even if objectives are to occur simultaneously, rather than one after the other, it is important to be clear about what the end point of each step/objective will be, and how it will help achieve the aim.
What not to do
It’s really helpful to think about what can go wrong with aims and objectives. There are some predictable problems that you want to avoid when writing them. These are some common aims-objectives issues:
• There are too many aims. One or two is usually enough. (I might stretch to three for other people’s projects if pushed, but I usually have only one for my own projects.)
• Aims and objectives waffle around, they don’t get to the point and the reader doesn’t have a clue what is actually intended and will be done – aims and objectives need to be concise and economically expressed.
• Aims and objectives don’t connect – the steps that are to be taken don’t match up with the overall intention.
• The aims and the objectives are not differentiated, they are basically the same things but said in different words.
• The objectives are a detailed laundry list rather than a set of stages in the research.
• The objectives don’t stack up with the research methods – in other words they are either not do-able, or what is to be done won’t achieve the desired results.
The final thing to say is that aims and objectives can’t be rushed. Because they generate the research questions and underpin the research design, sorting the aims and objectives are a crucial early stage in planning a research project. Aims and objectives are a foundation on which the entire project is constructed, so they need to be sturdy and durable.
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